Hall of Fame at the Lillian and Henry M. Stratton-Hans Popper Department of Pathology
Frederick S. Mandelbaum
Dr. Mandelbaum was the first full-time Pathologist in the institution. He was the first to develop the technique of identifying malignant cells in tissue fluids. His studies on Gaucher's disease, often in collaboration with Dr. Nathan Brill, paved the way for a century of interest in this genetic disorder on the part of the Mount Sinai staff.
In 1902, Dr. Bookman was the director of the first Chemistry Department in any New York Hospital. The Clinical Pathology department processed over 4.5 million specimens in 2003.
In 1908, he described "thromboangitis obliterans," to be known forever as Buerger's disease.
In 1901, he described an endemic form of typhus now known as Brill's disease. In 1913, in collaboration with Dr. Mandelbaum, the pathologic features of Gaucher's disease were described, and the eponym of Gaucher was introduced. As it turns out, Gaucher had misinterpreted the disease in 1882. Believing erroneously that the cause of the splenic enlargement was a tumor, he used the term "primary epithelioma of the spleen." Therefore, some felt that this illness, too, should rightfully be known as Brill's disease. Then, in a 1925 study, with Dr. George Baehr and Nathan Rosenthal, a form of lymphoma was described, now known as Brill-Symmers disease.
Among his many contributions to the field of pathology was his work with bacterial endocarditis. In 1910, he introduced the terms "acute" and "subacute" and called attention to the café-au-lait color of the skin and many other clinical features of bacterialendocarditis. In 1924, Libman and Sacks described the abacterial "atypical verrucous endocarditis" lesions associated with lupus erythematosus (Libman-Sacks endocarditis).
Dr. Baehr was the first to describe the renal lesions seen in subacute bacterial endocarditis. In 1935, the collaborative publication with Dr. Paul Klemperer and Dr. Arthur Schifrin, "A Diffuse Disease of the Peripheral Circulation (Usually Associated with Lupus Erythematosus and Endocarditis)" made major advances in the definitive description of lupus. The following year, the same authors and Dr. Moschcowitz were the first to definitively describe Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. In 1940, Dr. Baehr and Dr. Klemperer described giant follicle lymphoblastoma.
He was the first to describe the eosinophilic response in allergic reactions. In 1924, in collaboration with Dr. Abraham Wilensky, he described delineated granulomatous lesions of the small bowel. This discovery happened nine years before Mount Sinai's Burrill Crohn , Leon Ginzberg, and Gordon Oppenheimer elucidated regional ileitis. Dr. Moschcowitz was also the first to describe pulmonary hypertension and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
He was Mount Sinai's first neuropathologist. In collaboration with Israel Strauss, the clinical and pathological features of the malignant brain tumor spongioblastoma were described. In addition, Dr. Globus will always be remembered as the founding Editor-in-Chief of The Journal of the Mount Sinai Hospital, a position he held for 18 years.
Dr. Gross proved that Libman-Sacks disease was, in fact, associated with lupus erythematosus and not related to either rheumatic fever or subacute bacterial endocarditis.
From 1926 to 1955, he was the Director of Pathology at The Mount Sinai Hospital. Dr. Klemperer was a superb teacher, whose clinical pathological conferences attracted audiences far wider than the members of his own department. He was the author or coauthor of almost 80 publications, a number of which were milestones in the field. In addition to those already cited, he was responsible for clarifying the relationship between cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein and Banti's disease. In collaboration with Dr. Sadao Otani, he described the changes of malignant nephrosclerosis. As important as his personal contributions were, his forging of one of the greatest pathology departments in the world would be his legacy.
Dr. Otani was first recruited by Dr. Klemperer. He would provide Mount Sinai with outstanding surgical pathology services for more than four decades. Although he published fewer than a dozen papers, he was internationally recognized as a master of diagnostic pathology and highly respected in the field of surgical pathology. In addition to glomus jugulare (Otani's tumor), he described eosinophilic granuloma of bone and malignant nephrosclerosis.
In collaboration with her husband, the gastroenterologist Abraham Penner, described the visceral changes in shock (Penner-Bernheim syndrome).
Dr. Churg spent more than 50 years at Mount Sinai and completed more than 300 publications during his career. He is best known for his collaborative work with Dr. Lotte Strauss in studying allergic granulomatosis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Dr. Churg also made significant discoveries in the field of renal pathology. He introduced thin sectioning of renal specimens and special stains to study the intricate alterations of the diseased glomerulus and applied new techniques for the preparation and examination of renal biopsy tissue in electron microscopy. Collaborating with Dr. Irving Selikoff and Dr. E. Cuyler Hammond, he performed the pathologic studies on asbestos-related diseases that linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung neoplasia and the development of mesothelioma.
In 1941 she came to The Mount Sinai Hospital, where Paul Klemperer was Pathologist-in-Chief. He was a major influence on her life and encouraged her to concentrate on pediatric pathology. Dr. Strauss is generally regarded as the founder of the specialty. In 1953 a pediatric pathology service was established specially for her at The Mount Sinai Hospital. She was one of the pioneers in pediatric and perinatal pathology and one of the founders of the Society for Pediatric Pathology. She collaborated with Dr. Churg in studying allergic granulomatosis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Her particular field of interest was the ultra structure of the placenta in different fetal disease conditions, as well as intrauterine infections, and vascular diseases. She published almost 100 scientific articles and introduced a large number of young pathologists to the discipline.
Known as the Father of Modern Hepatology, Dr. Popper was recruited to Mount Sinai in 1957. In collaboration with Fenton Schaffner, he published the first modern English-language textbook on the pathology of the liver. He was the principal force behind creating the Hektoen Institute for Medical Research and the founder of the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the International Association for the Study of the Liver. Unarguably, Dr. Popper had the greatest impact on Mount Sinai of any physician associated with the institution during the second half of the twentieth century. Not only did he take an already famous Department of Pathology to new heights; he recognized that, in order to maintain its preeminence as a leading academically-oriented hospital, The Mount Sinai Hospital required its own medical school. He then became the driving force in persuading the Trustees, the Administration, and the medical staff to proceed. Once the idea was agreed upon, Dr. Popper established the philosophical basis for the school, served as the first Dean for Academic Affairs, and can rightfully claim the accolade of being the Father of Icahn School of Medicine. In 1972, upon the unexpected death of George James, who was the President and Dean of the School, Dr. Popper gave up the Chair in Pathology to become acting President and Dean until Thomas Chalmers took over in 1973. Dr. Popper continued his studies of the liver and remained active until just a few weeks before his death in 1988. As a hepatologist, he was a world leader and had no peer. He is credited with almost 800 publications and the author or editor of 28 books. Additionally, Dr. Popper was responsible for the training of many of Chairmen of Departments of Pathology, not only in the United States but around the world, and was also a superb mentor to investigators at the National Institutes of Health. A full discussion of Dr. Popper's achievements is beyond the scope of this biography. Many of his recruits to the Department of Pathology would go on to leadership positions in the discipline in hospitals and schools throughout the world. Fiorenzo Paronetto, Frederick Zak, Stephen Geller, and Emanuel Rubin would chair their own departments in major academic centers.
Trained in pathology at Mount Sinai Hospital and a long-time member of the Pathology Department faculty, Dr. Rubin succeeded Dr. Hans Popper as Chairman of Pathology in 1972. He served for four years, then left to become Professor and Chairman of Pathology at Hahnemann University School of Medicine and later Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology at Thomas Jefferson University School of Medicine. Dr. Rubin is a leading physician scientist in liver diseases and author of numerous medical books and articles in prestigious medical journals, including “Rubin’s Pathology,” which is going into its 7th edition and has been translated into 10 languages. The textbook has been in use at Mount Sinai since its first edition.
A frequent recipient of funding from the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Rubin is credited with research breakthroughs in liver disease and the effects of alcohol, including first demonstrating with Hans Popper a type of liver cirrhosis associated with alcoholism and the mechanism underlying primary biliary cirrohosis, among other discoveries. Some of the honors he has received for his accomplishments include: the MERIT award from the NIH, the Gold Medal Award of the International Academy of Pathology, the Distinguished Service Award of the Association of Pathology Chairs, and the Sbarro Health Research Organization’s Lifetime Scientific Achievement Award. He holds honorary degrees of Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Barcelona, Spain and the University of Naples, Italy. In addition to service on numerous editorial boards, he was Editor-in-Chief of “Laboratory Investigation,” the major journal of experimental pathology, for 14 years.
He was the Chairman of the Department of Pathology from 1978 to 1986. Dr. Kleinerman was internationally recognized for his accomplishments in the pathology of environmental lung disease.
Dr. Kaneko was the Chief of Surgical Pathology at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 1976-2004. His early years were spent in virtual apprenticeship to countryman, Sadao Otani. Dr. Kaneko placed a strong emphasis on the practice and teaching of surgical pathology. His trainees would eventually numbers in the hundreds, and his students included young pathologists who would go on to lead major academic departments and surgical pathology services across the country. Among his trainees was Mark Rosenblum, Chairman of the Department of Pathology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, who describes Dr. Kaneko as, "a particularly gifted diagnostician in a department that could boast a number of the finest pathologists then at work anywhere in the world." He was the recipient of the highest award, The Jacobi Medallion, for his services to Icahn School of Medicine.
Dr. Kaneko was particularly known for his "Gross Show," where his ability to recognize specific diseases by meticulous inspection of whole surgical specimens was a centerpiece of department life. Over the course of his career, he collected an invaluable database of gross and microscopic images that are an invaluable contribution to the residency program. Though appreciated mainly for his practical tradecraft and inspired pedagogy, Dr. Kaneko penned many scholarly contributions to the medical literature during his career.
In 1988, he was appointed as the third Irene Heinz Given and John LaPorte Professor of Pathology and Chair of the Department. World renowned for his work in bone pathology and his expertise in the effects of space and weightlessness on bone structure, Dr. Schiller has served on the Space Science Board of the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and as a member of the Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Advisory Committee of NASA. He was recently appointed to the Board of Directors of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. A superb teacher and blessed with an ebullient personality, Dr. Schiller has taken the Department to new heights in clinical pathology and research.