Medical Education News
New York Post - Higher Education: A Liberal Approach to Med School
September 16, 2015
A profile on FlexMed, a first-of-its-kind program, allows top students to apply to the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai as first-semester sophomores.
The Courier-Journal via USA Today: Local ER Medical Research May Lack Patient OK
May 31, 2015
Dr. Lynne Richardson and Dr. Rosamond Rhodes discuss the ethics of performing research on emergency medicine patients.
Becker’s Hospital Review: Why is This Medical School Trying to Lure English Majors?
May 28, 2015
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai expands its program granting early admissions to medical school to students studying liberal arts.
Kaiser Health News: A Top Medical School Revamps Requirements To Lure English Majors
May 27, 2015
Adding students to the mix who are educated in more than science is a serious philosophy at Mount Sinai.
NPR All Things Considered: A Top Medical School Revamps Requirements to Lure English Majors
May 27, 2015
You can't tell by looking which students at Mount Sinai's Icahn School of Medicine in New York City were traditional pre-meds as undergraduates and which weren't. And that's exactly the point.
In-Training: Hand-in-Hand: White Coats for Black Lives
May 10, 2015
Fareedat Oluyadi, an MD Candidate, Class of 2016 and Reena Karani, MD, MHPE, Associate Dean for Undergraduate Medical Education and Curricular Affairs at ISMMS shared their individual impressions and the connection they shared from their participation in the White Coats for Black Lives social protest this past winter.
Harper's Magazine: Diagnose This
April 1, 2015
Harper's Magazine does an in-depth exploration of the importance of listening and empathy in doctors. The article references Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai as the best example of a medical school incorporating these skills into their students' training.
Deseret News: Finding Faith in an Anatomy Lab
March 25, 2015
Dr. Jeffrey Laitman, Distinguished Professor of Medical Education at ISMMS, discusses the connection medical students find between exploring faith and the human body in Anatomy Lab.
International Business Times: Health Care: Walk-In Retail Clinics Burgeoning Source of Treatment
February 10, 2015
Dr. Yasmin Meah discusses the services provided by Mount Sinai's East Harlem Health Outreach Program.
Yahoo Health: Will The Super Bowl Spark Another Disneyland-Like Measles Outbreak?
January 30, 2015
In the wake of a recent measles outbreak, Dr. Gail Shust discusses possible health issues at the Super Bowl.
The Guardian: US Medical Students Stage 'Die-ins' Nationwide in Protest Against Police
December 10, 2014
Medical students have staged so-called die-ins at planned venues in 70 locations around the US as protests against perceived police impunity continue to grip the country.
Huffington Post: #WhiteCoats4BlackLives: Health Care Workers Stage Nationwide Protests Against Police Brutality
December 10, 2014
Medical students from more than 70 schools, including Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, on Wednesday protested racial profiling and police brutality through the social media initiative #WhiteCoats4BlackLives.
MSNBC: Medical Students 'Die-in' Over Police Misconduct
December 10, 2014
Rachel Maddow discusses the national "die-in" demonstrations which took place at over 70 medical schools, including Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
New York Parenting - Five Facts You Need to Know About the Ebola Virus
November 11, 2014
Dr. Roberto Posada explains a person can only become infected with the disease from direct contact with an Ebola patient.
WABC-TV - Junior High Students Learn at Mount Sinai Through Hands-On Experience
November 6, 2014
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai's Mount Sinai's Center for Excellence in Youth Education 7th and 8th graders a chance to dissect sheep brains as part of a program that's inspiring would-be doctors.
New York Daily News: Enterovirus Outbreak and Its Threat to Children Shows the Need for Vigilance in Prevention and Early Diagnosis
October 19, 2014
Gail Shust, MD, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases and Medical Education at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai discusses enterovirus in the New York Daily News's Daily Checkup.
Scientific American: Wild Sex: Beyond the Birds and the Bees
July 15, 2014
Joy Reidenberg, comparative anatomist at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, talks about her new PBS series Sex in the Wild, about the sex lives of elephants, orangutans, kangaroos and dolphins.
New Models for Clinical Education: Teaching to Care for the Chronically Ill: The InterACT Program
April 21, 2014
A look at the Interclerkship Ambulatory Care Track (InterACT), which provides select third-year medical students at Icahn School of Medicine with a longitudinal clinical experience grounded in the foundations of ambulatory medicine and chronic illness care.
Icahn School of Medicine wins Innovation Award at the 2014 International Emory Global Health Case Competition
March 29, 2014
Six students from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai took home the Innovation Award during the School's first entry into the Emory Global Health Case Competition.
WABC-TV - Future doctors find out residency placement fate on 'Match Day'
March 21, 2014
The medical students at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai are among 30,000 others who participated in 2014's Match Day.
The Arnold P. Gold Foundation: 'Ask What Person the Disease Has': Mount Sinai Students Highlight Patients' Personal Lives
March 16, 2014
To honor National Solidarity Day for Compassionate Patient Care on February 14th, 2014, medical students at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai spent one afternoon learning about patients' personal lives in order to craft signs for display over their beds.
The Empathy Switch: A Radio Documentary about Third Year in Medical School
March 11, 2014
Prapti Chatterjee, a second-year medical student at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, produced a radio documentary about life as a third-year medical student as part of her work in the Academy for Medicine and Humanities.
MedPage Today: Hot Topics: Medical Education
March 11, 2014
A panel of medical education experts, including David Muller, MD, Dean for Medical Education at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, discuss how to increase the number of medical students entering primary care fields.
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Ranks in the Top 20 Medical Schools by US News and World Report
March 11, 2014
The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences ranks in the Top 50 in this year’s "America's Best Graduate School" Rankings
Partners Healthcare - PHI Hosts Three-Day Intensive Course for Future Academic Clinician Educators
February 24, 2014
PHI recently hosted its first professional development program for postgraduate fellows and residents seeking to enhance their skills as future academic clinician-educators.
WABC News - Seven Things to Know about Frostbite
January 3, 2014
Dr. Adam Vella, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Pediatrics and Medical Education at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, comments on the dangers of frostbite.
Applying to Medical School: The Fuss About Extracurricular Activities
October 13, 2013
Alexa Mieses, second-year medical student at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, provides a step-by-step admissions guide for anyone even thinking about pursuing medicine, but especially first-generation aspiring physicians.
The Wall Street Journal - NY Medical Schools Increase Enrollment
September 16, 2013
New York's 16 medical schools have enrolled 120 more students this fall than last year. Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai enrolled 140 students out of more than 5,000 applicants.
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Welcomes the Class of 2017 in its Annual White Coat Ceremony
September 12, 2013
The 140 students were selected from 5,468 applications to Mount Sinai, a significant increase in applications from previous years.
The Jerusalem Post - Overweight Among Israeli Kids Inching Towards US Rate
July 25, 2013
A new study by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Clalit Health Services' Emek Medical Center in Afula has found childhood obesity rates here are nearing those in the US.
National Public Radio - Staying Healthy May Mean Learning to Love Our Microbiomes
July 22, 2013
Dr. Rosamond Rhodes discusses the expanding view of the microbiome is changing how some people think about humans, not as individual entities, but as a "supraorganism."
World Health Organization - July 2013
July 11, 2013
As a result of efforts from a team of Mount Sinai doctors and one Mount Sinai med student, risperidone, an anti-psychotic medication, has been added to the 18th World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medications.
GigaOm - Easing the End of Life: Startups That Are Helping People Make the Ultimate Decision
June 29, 2013
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai fourth-year medical student, Azalea Kim, is a co-founder of TrueNorth, a using technology to help patients think through and share their end of life decisions.
Princeton University HPA Vitals: FlexMed: An Innovative Medical Education Model
June 26, 2013
Princeton University's Health Professions Advising Newsletter, Vitals, profiles three students and how early their acceptance through HuMed shaped their time at Princeton.
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Announce Academic Collaboration
May 22, 2013
Partnership will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation in Biomedical Sciences.
Dr. Jeffrey Laitman receives honorary Doctor of Medical Science Degree from The Medical College of Wisconsin
May 17, 2013
Dr. Laitman received his honorary degree at MCW's 100th annual commencement exercises on Friday, May 17.
Academic Medicine - Medical School Admissions and the MCAT: A Modest Proposal
May 14, 2013
David Muller, MD, Dean and Chair of the Department of Medical Education at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai proposes changing how MCAT scores are reported.
The New Yorker - Every Disease on Earth; Elmhurst Hospital’s Medical Melting Pot
May 13, 2013
Elmhurst Hospital Center, in Elmhurst, the most diverse neighborhood in New York City and maybe in the world, serves 1.7 million patients a year, and offers translation services in a hundred and fifty-three languages.
Mount Sinai Honors Innovators in Scientific Research and Health Care Philanthropy at 2013 Commencement
May 10, 2013
Nobel Prize-winner Daniel Kahneman, PhD, delivers keynote address and receives honorary degree
The New England Journal of Medicine - Reforming Premedical Education — Out with the Old, In with the New
April 25, 2013
At Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, since 1987, humanities majors have been entering medical school here having neither undergone traditional premed science preparation nor taken the MCAT. According to a retrospective analysis, these students performed as well as their peers.
NY1 - Medical School At Mount Sinai Pays More Attention To Humanities
April 10, 2013
The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai is expanding a 25-year old program, recruiting from different undergraduate disciplines to eventually make up half of its class.
Mount Sinai Graduates Score Top Assignments in Nationwide Residency Match
March 20, 2013
In a celebratory tradition known as “Match Day,” Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai students matched to some of the nation’s most competitive residency programs.
National Public Radio - Matchmaker, Er, Match Week, Make Me a Doctor
March 15, 2013
Match week is the nail-biting time of year that haunts and tantalizes fourth-year medical students with dreams of residency programs.
The Chronicle of Higher Education - Mount Sinai Launches New FlexMed Program
February 28, 2013
The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai is introducing a flexible admissions program for half its incoming students, who will skip the Medical College Admission Test, forgo traditional premed requirements, and be accepted in their sophomore year in college, as long as they maintain a 3.5 grade-point average through senior year.
Inside Higher Ed - Med School Without the MCAT
February 28, 2013
In a major policy shift, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Wednesday announced that it will fill half of its entering class going forward by admitting college sophomores - three years before they would enroll in medical school - and will do so without requiring traditional pre-med course requirements and the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT).
Mount Sinai Eliminates Traditional Pre-Med Requirements and the MCAT for Half of Admitted Students
February 27, 2013
Program Aims To Attract Sophomores In Fields As Diverse As Biophysics And Computer Science, To Global Health And The Arts
Noticias Mundo FOX - Latino Community Could Be The Healthiest
January 25, 2013
A recent study could spark debate again called Hispanic paradox. According to experts, Latinos have an average life of 81.2 years.
The New York Daily News - The Daily Checkup: Hurricane Sandy Heightens Threat Of Respiratory Illness In Children
December 19, 2012
For thousands of families affected by Hurricane Sandy, the long process of renovating and rebuilding is further complicated by the possibility of environmental contaminants in the home.
Huffington Post - Psychological First Aid: Mental Health Care After Hurricane Sandy
December 5, 2012
Craig Katz, MD, clinical associate professor of psychiatry and medical education at Mount Sinai School of Medicine co-wrote an article describing the efforts of medical students to provide relief to victims of Hurricane Sandy.
New York Amsterdam News - Cosmopolitan Review: Mount Sinai School of Medicine Center for Multicultural and Community Affairs, Signature Event 2012
November 22, 2012
Dedicated to the memory and legacy of Lloyd R. Sherman, EdD, the Mount Sinai School of Medicine Center for Multicultural and Community Affairs held its Signature Event 2012.
SINAInnovations Ignites Momentum For A New Era Of Innovation
November 20, 2012
1st SINAInnovations conference gathered more than 600 individuals and featured sessions that covered innovation in teaching, drug discovery, and commercialization.
The Anatomical Record - The Anatomy and Biology of Hearing and Balance: Cochlear and Vestibular Implants
November 15, 2012
The November 2012 issue of the renowned journal, The Anatomical Record, explores the frontiers of translational biology.
USA Today - Chance Of Surgery, Care Quality Vary By Region
October 30, 2012
A new report looks closely at 23 medical centers, including many of the top-rated hospitals for clinical excellence by U.S. News and World Report and other leading hospitals affiliated with universities.
National Public Radio - The Next Frontier For Elite Med Schools: Primary Care
September 23, 2012
Elite schools have long focused on training specialists and researchers, but with the federal health law's emphasis on primary care, some schools are looking harder at family medicine.
The Financial - Mount Sinai School of Medicine Aims to Revolutionize Medical School Program
September 17, 2012
First-year medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine will be the first in New York to be introduced to a digital-age ultrasound device that can visualize inside the body, and fit directly into the pockets of their brand new white coats.
Mount Sinai Welcomes New Students in White Coat Tradition
September 14, 2012
One hundred forty new students comprising Mount Sinai School of Medicine’s class of 2016, today participated in the symbolic White Coat ceremony.
The New York Post - Medicine, No Charge
August 16, 2012
Every Saturday, at a clinic on 102nd Street in East Harlem, a medical miracle is occurring – uninsured residents receiving free healthcare from a devoted cadre of Mount Sinai School of Medicine students.
The New York Daily News - Central Park Now a Danger Zone for Pedestrians as News Finds 16 Cyclists Breaking 25 Mph Limit on Their Speeding Road Bike
August 8, 2012
Central Park — once the city’s most pedestrian-friendly oasis — has become a danger zone where folks on foot have to dodge speeding bicyclists who treat roads like Olympic velodromes.
National Public Radio - The Elusive Giant Squid
June 20, 2012
Dr. Joy Reidenberg from Mount Sinai School of Medicine talks about one of the most elusive and mysterious creatures on earth, the giant squid.
US News and World Report - Pursue Alternative Routes to a Medical Education
June 4, 2012
The Humanities and Medicine Early Acceptance Program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine has trained premedical and medical students in a wide array of disciplines since its founding in 1987. The program embraces the influence of humanities, and other fields, in the practice of medicine.
National Public Radio - Mysterious Sensory Organ Found In Whale's Chin
May 23, 2012
A group of scientists discovered an organ that serves a crucial purpose and answers the longstanding mystery of how great whales, such as humpbacks and blues, drive their jaws so wide open and then snap them shut, while swimming at full speed.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Honors Leaders Who Challenge the Boundaries of Science at 2012 Commencement Ceremony
May 10, 2012
Brown University President Ruth J. Simmons, PhD, delivers keynote address and receives honorary degree.
Mount Sinai Students Recognized for Social Justice Program in East Harlem
April 16, 2012
Mount Sinai students developed a program of community service and research to acquire the skills they need to pursue social justice work in their careers
Magic Johnson Joins Mount Sinai at Community Health Fair
April 16, 2012
Earvin "Magic" Johnson partnered with Mount Sinai to host community health fair featuring free screenings, cooking demonstrations, prizes, and live music.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Awarded Reaccreditation
March 19, 2012
Mount Sinai was reaccredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, the national authority on MD programs, for 8 more years.
Nathan Kase, MD, Receives The 2012 Alexander Richman Award for Humanism and Ethics in Medicine
March 16, 2012
The award will be presented during the 2012 Alexander Richman Commemorative Lecture on March 22, at 11:00 am at Mount Sinai.
Are Student Research Requirements Redefining Medical Education? Or Will The Trend Come to An End?
February 23, 2012
A conference, entitled "Integrating Student Research into the Medical School Curriculum," will take place Friday, February 24, from 8:15 AM to 7:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences.
The New York Times - From Inside Lions and Leviathans, Anatomist Builds a Following
February 6, 2012
Dr. Joy Reidenberg went to college at Cornell, hoping to become a vet or a medical illustrator. But she gave up those notions when she discovered that there were people who learned new things about anatomy for a living.
The Hour - Norwalk native appearing in PBS series "Inside Nature's Giants"
February 3, 2012
Dr. Joy Gaylinn Reidenberg, a comparative anatomist and professor at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, plays an integral part of a team of scientists featured in the PBS series, "Inside Nature's Giants."
Theresa Soriano, MD, Recognized for Excellence in End-of-Life Care at The Mount Sinai Medical Center
January 19, 2012
Dr. Theresa Soriano received the Hastings Center Cunniff-Dixon Physician Award for her efforts leading the Mount Sinai Visiting Doctors Program.
The New York Times - Windows Into Big but Little-Understood Worlds
January 17, 2012
“Inside Nature’s Giants” features a team of experts who dissect a different large animal each episode. It consists of four people including Dr. Joy Reidenberg, a comparative anatomist from Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The four
The Journal News - Rye Scientist, TV Star Offers Look 'Inside Nature's Giants'
January 7, 2012
“Inside Nature’s Giants” features Dr. Joy Reidenberg and two other scientists traveling the world to look inside the biggest creatures on the planet.
ABC Nightline - Miracle Babies
December 27, 2011
Drs. Sigrid Hahn and Natasha Anandaraja have spent the past two years traveling with medical students from Mount Sinai School of Medicine to Mozambique where complications from childbirth kill one in 11 women.
U.S. News and World Report and Mount Sinai School of Medicine Present Exclusive Summit on U.S. News Medical School Rankings
November 7, 2011
Transcript Available Now, Video to be Available at WWW.USNEWS.COM
Mount Sinai School of Medicine and US News present Exclusive Summit on Medical School Rankings
October 28, 2011
Mount Sinai School of Medicine hosted a summit with US News and medical education experts and deans from across the US to address the methodology behind the US News medical school rankings.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Awarded More Than $2 Million to Continue The Northeast Regional Alliance Health Careers Opportunity Program
October 19, 2011
The renewal funding was made possible through a grant from the Health Career Opportunity Program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Commencement Honors Leaders in Discovery and Innovation
May 13, 2011
U.S. Senator Kirsten Gillibrand delivers keynote address at Mount Sinai School of Medicine’s 2011 commencement ceremony.
Global Health Delivery and Implementation Research
May 1, 2011
The May/June 2011 issue of the Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine focuses on global health and features editorial contributions from members of Mount Sinai Global Health.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Awarded Grant by the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation
December 7, 2010
The grant will go toward instilling in students a deeper appreciation of chronic illness and the plight of the medically disenfranchised.
Middle Schoolers More Interested in College and Medical Careers Thanks to Mount Sinai Program
November 15, 2010
MedStart program for Harlem middle schoolers also improved knowledge of diseases prevalent in their community such as diabetes and heart disease.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Joins Elite Consortium of Universities for Global Health
September 9, 2010
Mount Sinai has been accepted into the Consortium of Universities for Global Health, a prestigious organization of global health programs across the country.
Mount Sinai Study Shows that Humanities Students Perform As Well As Pre-Med Students in Medical School
July 30, 2010
Data indicate that students in the unique Humanities and Medicine program at Mount Sinai perform as well as traditionally prepared pre-med students.
Mount Sinai’s Joy S. Reidenberg, PhD, Part of Documentary Series Honored by British Academy of Film and Television Arts
June 11, 2010
Dr. Reidenberg is a featured anatomist on the award-winning wildlife documentary series “Inside Nature’s Giants.”
Mount Sinai Teams Return to Haiti to Provide Critical Care to Earthquake Survivors
May 27, 2010
The Mount Sinai Medical Center has dispatched several teams of health care personnel to Haiti to support ongoing relief efforts in the aftermath of the January earthquake.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Commencement Honors Leaders in Genetics and Public Health
May 13, 2010
President Bill Clinton was among the honorees at Mount Sinai School of Medicine's 41st annual commencement ceremonies.
NY Times "Medical Students and Health Costs" Dr. Yasmin Meah
May 3, 2010
Medical students are starting to learn about the cost of treatments, the financing of health care, and the impact of high medical bills on their patients.
Mount Sinai Medical Center Honors Founders and Partners of the Visiting Doctors Program
April 26, 2010
The founders of The Mount Sinai Visiting Doctors Program were honored April 21, 2010, at a celebration and awards presentation commemorating its 15th anniversary.
The Mount Sinai Medical Center and Patti LaBelle Host Community Health Fair
April 21, 2010
On April 17, The Mount Sinai Medical Center partnered with Patti LaBelle to host its seventh-annual, student-run Community Health Fair at the Center for Advanced Medicine.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Ranked in the Top 20 Best Medical Schools by US News and World Report
April 19, 2010
US News & World Report ranks Mount Sinai School of Medicine 18th out of 146 medical schools and schools of osteopathic medicine nationwide.
Phillip Landrigan, MD, MSc, Appointed Dean for Global Health at Mount Sinai School of Medicine
April 15, 2010
Dr. Landrigan is an internationally recognized pediatrician, epidemiologist, and leader in public health and preventive medicine.
Yasmin L. Hurd, PhD, Named Director of MD-PhD Program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine
April 2, 2010
Yasmin L. Hurd, PhD, has been appointed Director of the MD/PhD program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Her appointment is effective April 1.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Receives 2009 Spencer Foreman Award for Outstanding Community Service
November 13, 2009
The Association of American Medical Colleges honors Mount Sinai School of Medicine with the annual award in recognition of the institution's commitment to underserved communities.
The Scientist Magazine Ranks Mount Sinai School of Medicine One of the Best Places to Work
October 29, 2009
Mount Sinai School of Medicine placed 15th overall on the magazine's 2009 ranking of the best places to work in U.S. academia, with teaching and mentoring included among the institution's strengths.
Yasmin Meah, MD, Honored with 2007 Humanism in Medicine Award
October 1, 2009
The East Harlem Health Outreach Partnership (EHHOP), a free clinic founded and run by Mount Sinai medical students, for all patients regardless of insurance status or ability to pay was able to cut through red tape and open its doors, thanks to Yasmin Meah, MD.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Students Receive 2009 AMA Foundation Minority Scholars Award
May 21, 2009
The Mount Sinai students are among 12 selected nationwide to receive the scholarships in recognition of their achievements as medical students and demonstrated promise for future careers in medicine.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Commencement Celebrates Those Who Changed Medicine and Those Who Fought for Change
May 15, 2009
Michael J. Fox and Earvin "Magic" Johnson were among the leaders and luminaries from science, sports, entertainment, and philanthropy who set a high standard for the class of 2009.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Significantly Improves Its U.S. News & World Report Best Graduate Schools Rankings
April 24, 2009
Over the past four years, Mount Sinai has improved in the U.S. News & World Report "America's Best Graduate Schools" rankings more than any other school in the United States, jumping from 32nd to 22nd.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Class of 2009 Matched to Top Programs Nationwide
March 19, 2009
All Mount Sinai graduating students seeking a residency position for July 2009 were successfully placed. Matching institutions included Yale-New Haven Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital.
David Muller, MD, Dean for Medical Education, Receives National Award from American Medical Association Foundation
March 12, 2009
The AMA Foundation’s Pride in the Profession Award recognizes the contributions of physicians who work in underserved areas and sacrifice their time for volunteer and public service efforts.