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Paula Croxson

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    I completed my Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology at the University of Oxford, UK, working in prefrontal cortex function and decision making, where I first began to use functional and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). I carried out my postdoctoral work in the laboratory of Dr. Mark Baxter investigating the role of the cholinergic system in memory and prefrontal cortex function, and the causal effects of lesions on brain-wide networks.  I have now established an independent research program using MRI to investigate the effects of discrete changes to the brain on memory networks.

    My laboratory investigates the networks of brain regions that govern different kinds of memory. We know that memory is not localized to single brain regions, but instead is the result of groups of brain regions working together. To do this we examine the effect of changes to specific regions of the brain on the whole network, and correlate these network changes with behavior. We also work on the role of neurochemicals, such as acetylcholine, in memory. We accomplish this research by using magnetic resonance imaging in animal models, to look at changes in structure, function and connections – and by combining it with behavioral assessments.


Croxson PL, Walton ME, Boorman ED, Rushworth MF, Bannerman DM. Unilateral medial frontal cortex lesions cause a cognitive decision-making deficit in rats. The European journal of neuroscience 2014 Oct;.

Baxter MG, Croxson PL. Behavioral control by the orbital prefrontal cortex: reversal of fortune. Nature neuroscience 2013 Aug; 16(8).

O'Reilly JX, Croxson PL, Jbabdi S, Sallet J, Noonan MP, Mars RB, Browning PG, Wilson CR, Mitchell AS, Miller KL, Rushworth MF, Baxter MG. Causal effect of disconnection lesions on interhemispheric functional connectivity in rhesus monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2013 Aug; 110(34).

Baxter MG, Croxson PL. Facing the role of the amygdala in emotional information processing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2012 Dec; 109(52).

Croxson PL, Browning PG, Gaffan D, Baxter MG. Acetylcholine facilitates recovery of episodic memory after brain damage. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2012 Oct; 32(40).

Croxson PL, Kyriazis DA, Baxter MG. Cholinergic modulation of a specific memory function of prefrontal cortex. Nature neuroscience 2011 Dec; 14(12).

Sallet J, Mars RB, Noonan MP, Andersson JL, O'Reilly JX, Jbabdi S, Croxson PL, Jenkinson M, Miller KL, Rushworth MF. Social network size affects neural circuits in macaques. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2011 Nov; 334(6056).

Mars RB, Jbabdi S, Sallet J, O'Reilly JX, Croxson PL, Olivier E, Noonan MP, Bergmann C, Mitchell AS, Baxter MG, Behrens TE, Johansen-Berg H, Tomassini V, Miller KL, Rushworth MF. Diffusion-weighted imaging tractography-based parcellation of the human parietal cortex and comparison with human and macaque resting-state functional connectivity. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2011 Mar; 31(11).

Browning PG, Gaffan D, Croxson PL, Baxter MG. Severe scene learning impairment, but intact recognition memory, after cholinergic depletion of inferotemporal cortex followed by fornix transection. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 2010 Feb; 20(2).

Walton ME, Groves J, Jennings KA, Croxson PL, Sharp T, Rushworth MF, Bannerman DM. Comparing the role of the anterior cingulate cortex and 6-hydroxydopamine nucleus accumbens lesions on operant effort-based decision making. The European journal of neuroscience 2009 Apr; 29(8).

Croxson PL, Walton ME, O'Reilly JX, Behrens TE, Rushworth MF. Effort-based cost-benefit valuation and the human brain. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009 Apr; 29(14).

Walton ME, Croxson PL, Behrens TE, Kennerley SW, Rushworth MF. Adaptive decision making and value in the anterior cingulate cortex. NeuroImage 2007; 36 Suppl 2.

Croxson PL, Johansen-Berg H, Behrens TE, Robson MD, Pinsk MA, Gross CG, Richter W, Richter MC, Kastner S, Rushworth MF. Quantitative investigation of connections of the prefrontal cortex in the human and macaque using probabilistic diffusion tractography. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005 Sep; 25(39).

Walton ME, Croxson PL, Rushworth MF, Bannerman DM. The mesocortical dopamine projection to anterior cingulate cortex plays no role in guiding effort-related decisions. Behavioral neuroscience 2005 Feb; 119(1).

Industry Relationships

Physicians and scientists on the faculty of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai often interact with pharmaceutical, device and biotechnology companies to improve patient care, develop new therapies and achieve scientific breakthroughs. In order to promote an ethical and transparent environment for conducting research, providing clinical care and teaching, Mount Sinai requires that salaried faculty inform the School of their relationships with such companies.

Dr. Croxson did not report having any of the following types of financial relationships with industry during 2014 and/or 2015: consulting, scientific advisory board, industry-sponsored lectures, service on Board of Directors, participation on industry-sponsored committees, equity ownership valued at greater than 5% of a publicly traded company or any value in a privately held company. Please note that this information may differ from information posted on corporate sites due to timing or classification differences.

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