- PROFESSOR Oncological Sciences
- PROFESSOR Surgery
The other major direction my laboratory has taken includes investigating mechanisms underlying tumor-mediated immunosuppression/tolerance as seen in animals with high tumor burdens. This represents a major obstacle in immune modulated cancer therapy. We have found a significant increase in the number of myeloid suppressor cells (MSC) and T regulatory cells in mice with large tumors. MSC can inhibit T-cell proliferation mediated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 (Kusmartsev et al., J. Immunol. 2000), HA peptide- (antigen-specific) mediated proliferation of TCR transgenic T cells, and tumor-specific CTL responses. Interestingly, MSC can be induced to differentiate into mature DCs (Li et al., 2003). Recently, we have established a conditionally-immortalized hematopoietic stem cell system to investigate the development, accumulation, and migration of MSC in tumor-bearing animals. A tumor model with an artificial tumor antigen (HA) has been established and will be utilized to study the underlying mechanisms of immune suppression and tolerance mediated by MSC and T regulatory cells in vivo.
My laboratory is also developing regimens capable of re-activating anergic T cells and identifying immunosuppressive factors secreted by tumor cells or MSC, which may regulate DC development and induce T regulatory cell development in mice and patients with large tumor burdens.
By identifying the molecules involved in immune suppression and tolerance, and studying their underlying mechanisms in hosts with large tumor burdens, we are reassessing a critical avenue to effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity for cancer immune therapies. My ultimate goal is translate the knowledge gained from animal models to comparable studies in clinical trial patients and thus work toward treatments for metastatic diseases. Already, we are expanding collaborations to translate the results of our preclinical research into clinical application for metastatic melanoma, colon, and breast cancers.
Our goal is to combine activation of innate and adaptive immunity. We are investigating the relevant immune activation mechanisms, e.g. IL-12 alone (Manuel et al., PNAS 1996, Khiem et al., Int. J. Cancer 1999), or in combination with agonism of co-stimulatory molecules 4-1BB (Martinet et al., J. of National Cancer Ins. 2000, Chen et al., Mol. Therapy 2000, Xu et al., 2003 Int. J. of Cancer), OX40 (Pan et al., Mol. Therapy 2002), and/or CD40 (manuscript in preparation). We have observed a dramatic synergistic therapeutic effect with the combination of IL-12 + 4-1BB activation, which translated to greater therapeutic efficacy than with either reagent alone. This allowed a greater than 18-fold reduction of the IL-12 viral dose while still achieving treatment goals.
These immune enhancing strategies have been actively studied in metastatic models of colorectal carcinoma, breast cancer, and melanoma with similar results. We hypothesize that IL-12 activated NK cells initiate the innate immune response by regulating the activation of and proliferation of DCs. More importantly, these activated DCs can be further activated and maturation induced by ligation of the co-stimulatory molecules with agonistic 4-1BB or CD40 antibodies or the corresponding natural ligands. Subsequently, these activated DCs can migrate into lymphoid organs where they activate nave T cells. These primed CD8+ and CD4+ T cell can be further activated and induced to undergo clonal expansion by 4-1BB and OX40 co-stimulation.
Results from studies detailing the in vivo immune mechanisms underlying these treatment modalities have been accepted or are under the revision for publication (Li et al., 2003, Pan et al., 2003, Xu et al., 2003). Currently, Phase I clinical trials are investigating adenoviral human IL-12 gene delivery for breast and colon cancer metastases to the liver. Also, a combination therapy trial for breast cancer is waiting final development of GMP-grade reagents. Clinical response and relevant information from treated patients will help improve our treatment paradigms and thinking.
Future directions in my laboratory include continued focus upon the interaction between NK and DCs; the effect of 4-1BB, OX40, and CD40 ligation on DC activation; and identification of receptors involved in NK/DC activation and linkage of innate and adaptive immune responses.
Hall SJ, Canfield SE, Yan Y, Hassen W, Selleck WA, Chen SH. A novel bystander effect involving tumor cell derived Fas and FasL interactions following Ad.HSV-tk and Ad.mIL-12 gene therapies in experimental prostate cancer. Gene Ther 2002 Apr; 9(8): 511-7.
Martinet O, Divino CM, Zang Y, Gan Y, Mandeli J, Thung S, Pan PY, Chen SH. T cell activation with systemic agonistic antibody versus local 4-1BB ligand gene delivery combined with interleukin-12 eradicate liver metastases of breast cancer. Gene Ther 2002 Jun; 9(12): 786-92.
Sung MW, Chen SH, Thung SN, Zhang DY, Huang TG, Mandeli JP, Woo SL. Intratumoral delivery of adenovirus-mediated interleukin-12 gene in mice with metastatic cancer in the liver. Hum Gene Ther 2002 Apr 10; 13(6): 731-43.
Qiao J, Doubrovin M, Sauter BV, Huang Y, Guo ZS, Balatoni J, Akhurst T, Blasberg RG, Tjuvajev JG, Chen SH, Woo SL. Tumor specific transcriptional targeting of suicide gene therapy. Gene Ther 2002 Feb; 9(3): 168-75.
Selleck WA, Canfield SE, Hassen WA, Meseck M, Kuzmin AI, Eisensmith RC, Chen SH, Hall SJ. IFN-gamma sensitization of prostate cancer cells to Fas-mediated death: a gene therapy approach. Mol Ther 2003 Feb; 7(2): 185-92.
Pan PY, Li Y, Li Q, Gu P, Martinet O, Thung S, Chen SH. In situ recruitment of antigen-presenting cells by intratumoral GM-CSF gene delivery. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2004 Jan; 53(1): 17-25.
Li Q, Pan PY, Xu P, Gu P, Chen SH. The role of immature myeloid Gr-1+ cells in large tumor bearing animals for the development of anti-tumor immunity. Cancer Research 2004; 64: 1130-1139.
Xu D, Gu P, Pan PY, Li Q, Chen SH, Sato AI. NK and CD8+ T cell-mediated eradication of poorly immunogenic B16-F10 melanoma by the combined action of IL-12 gene therapy and 4-1BB costimulation. Int J Cancer 2004 Apr 20; 109(4): 499-506.
Physicians and scientists on the faculty of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai often interact with pharmaceutical, device and biotechnology companies to improve patient care, develop new therapies and achieve scientific breakthroughs. In order to promote an ethical and transparent environment for conducting research, providing clinical care and teaching, Mount Sinai requires that salaried faculty inform the School of their relationships with such companies.
Below are financial relationships with industry reported by Dr. Chen during 2014 and/or 2015. Please note that this information may differ from information posted on corporate sites due to timing or classification differences.
- Advantagene; Baylor College of Medicine
Mount Sinai's faculty policies relating to faculty collaboration with industry are posted on our website at http://icahn.mssm.edu/about-us/services-and-resources/faculty-resources/handbooks-and-policies/faculty-handbook. Patients may wish to ask their physician about the activities they perform for companies.
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