Photo of Stanislaw Sobotka

Stanislaw Sobotka

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  • M.Sc., Faculty of Medical Engineering, Technical University

  • Ph.D., Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences

  • D.Sc., Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences


    Stanislaw Sobotka, D.Sc., Ph.D., joined the Department of Neurosurgery in October 2004, coming from the University of Rochester where he was a Research Assistant Professor in the Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy. In addition, he has had appointments at the University of Wisconsin where he had a Senior Fulbright Scholarship, and at the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology of the Polish Academy of Science in Warsaw where he also earned a D.Sc. in Neurophysiology and a Ph.D. in psychophysiology. In the Department, Dr. Sobotka will be working as a Senior Research Scientist with Dr. Arthur Jenkins, coordinating laboratory experiments and developing new technology to advance the science of neural prosthetic implants. They will attempt to reproduce motor function below a complete spinal cord injury, ultimately deriving the signals from the patient's own brain to allow the patient to control his or her own limbs again. Dr. Sobotka's previous research interests include evoked potential and single unit correlates of short term memory in behaving primates, application of EEG and event-related-potentials in the study of hemispheric asymmetry of the human brain in healthy subjects and in clinical patients and electrophysiological effects of visual deprivation in cats.


  • 2003 -
    Fulbright Senior Specialist candidate
    University of Wisconsin

  • 1989 -
    Award for the studies of hemispheric asymmetry of the human brain
    Polish Academy of Science

  • 1988 - 1989
    Senior Fulbright Scholarship
    University of Wisconsin

  • 1986 -
    Award for the studies of hemispheric asymmetry of the human brain
    Polish Academy of Science

  • 1984 -
    Award for the studies of hemispheric asymmetry of the human brain
    Polish Academy of Science


Developing a system for interfacing the spinal motor systems with computer sensors and stimulators.


Sobotka S, Davidson RJ, Senulis J. Anterior brain electrical asymmetries in response to reward and punishment. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1992 Oct; 83(4): 236-247.

Sobotka S, Ringo JL. Investigation of long-term recognition and association memory in unit responses from inferotemporal cortex. Exp Brain Res 1993; 96(1): 28-38.

Ringo JL, Sobotka S, Diltz MD, Bunce CM. Eye movements modulate activity in hippocampal, parahippocampal and inferotemporal neurons. J Neurophysiol 1994 Mar; 71(3): 1285-1288.

Sobotka S, Ringo JL. Stimulus specific adaptation in excited but not in inhibited cells in inferotemporal cortex of macaque. Brain Res 1994 May 16; 646(1): 95-99.

Sobotka S, Ringo JL. Mnemonic responses of single units recorded from monkey inferotemporal cortex, accessed via transcommissural versus direct pathways: A dissociation between unit activity and behavior. J Neurosci 1996 Jul 1; 16(13): 4222-4230.

Sobotka S, Nowicka A, Ringo JL. Activity linked to externally cued saccades in single units recorded from hippocampal, parahippocampal, and inferotemporal areas of macaques. J Neurophysiol 1997 Oct; 78(4): 2156-2163.

Sobotka S, Ringo JL. Saccadic eye movements, even in darkness, generate event-related potentials in medial septum and medial temporal cortex. Brain Res 1997 May 9; 756(1-2): 168-173.

Sobotka S. Influence of saccadic eye movements on visual responses of single neurons in temporal cortex (in Polish). Psychol. Rev 1999; 42(1-2): 183-190.

Sobotka S. Involvement of single unit activity in inferotemporal and perirhinal cortices in recognition memory of visual objects in the macaque. Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 2000; 60: 219-226.

Sobotka S, Zuo W, Ringo JL. Is the functional connectivity within temporal lobe influenced by saccadic eye movements. J Neurophysiol 2002 Oct; 88(4): 1675-1684.

Sobotka S, Diltz MD, Ringo JL. Can delay period activity explain working memory. J Neurophysiol 2005 Jan; 93(1): 128-136.

Sobotka S, Mu L. Characteristics of tetanic force produced by the sternomastoid muscle of the rat. Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology 2010; 2010(doi:10.1155/2010/194984): 11 pages.

Zhang X, Mu L, Su H, Sobotka S. Locations of the motor endplate band and motoneurons innervating the sternomastoid muscle in the rat. Anatomical Record 2011 Feb; 294(2): 295-304.

Mu L, Sobotka S, Su H. Nerve-Muscle-Endplate Band Grafting: A New Technique for Muscle Reinnervation. Neurosurgery 2011 Jul; 69(Suppl 2): 208-224.

Sobotka S, Mu L. Force characteristics of the rat sternomastoid muscle reinnervated with end-to-end nerve repair. Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology 2011; 2011(doi:10.1155/2011/173471): 10 pages.

Sobotka S, Mu L. Comparison of muscle force after immediate and delayed reinnervation using nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting. Journal of Surgical Research 2013; 179: E117-126.

Mu L, Sobotka S, Chen J, et al . Altered pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 2012; 71(6): 520-530.

Sobotka S, Mu L. Force recovery and axonal regeneration of the sternomastoid muscle reinnervated with the end-to-end nerve anastomosis. Journal of Surgical Research 2013; 182: E51-59.

Dilmanian F, Jenkins A III, Olschowka J, Zong Z, Park J, Desnoyers N, Sobotka S, et al . X-ray microbeam irradiation of the contusion-injured rat spinal cord temporarily improves hind-limb function. Radiation Research 2013; 179(1): 76-88.

Mu L, Sobotka S, Chen J, et al . α-Synuclein pathology and axonal degeneration of the peripheral motor nerves innervating pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson’s disease . Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 2013; 72(2): 119-129.

Sanders I, Mu L, Amirali A, Su H, Sobotka S. The human tongue slows down to speak: Muscle fibers of the human tongue. Anatomical Record 2013; published online(DOI 10.1002/ar.22755).

Mu L, Sobotka S, Chen J, et al . Parkinson disease affects peripheral sensory nerves in the pharynx. Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 2013 July; 72(7): 614-623.

Sobotka S, Mu L. Muscle Reinnervation with NMEG: Force Recovery and Axonal Regeneration. Journal of Surgical Research 2015; 195(DOI: 10.116/j.jss.2015.01.008): 144-151.

Holloway T, Lorsch ZS, Chary MA, Sobotka S, Moore MM, Costa AB, Del Maestro RF, Bederson J. Operator experience determines performance in a simulated computer-based brain tumor resection task. International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 2015;(DOI: 10.1007/s11548-015-1160-Y).

Mu L, Chen J, Sobotka S, et al . Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson's Disease Patients. Dysphagia 2015;(DOI: 10.1007/s00455-015-9612-7).

Jenkins A III, Ahuja A, Oliff A, Sobotka S. Spinal Schwannoma Presenting Due to Torsion and Hemorrhage: Case Report and Review of Literature. The Spine Journal 2015;.

Industry Relationships

Physicians and scientists on the faculty of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai often interact with pharmaceutical, device and biotechnology companies to improve patient care, develop new therapies and achieve scientific breakthroughs. In order to promote an ethical and transparent environment for conducting research, providing clinical care and teaching, Mount Sinai requires that salaried faculty inform the School of their relationships with such companies.

Dr. Sobotka did not report having any of the following types of financial relationships with industry during 2015 and/or 2016: consulting, scientific advisory board, industry-sponsored lectures, service on Board of Directors, participation on industry-sponsored committees, equity ownership valued at greater than 5% of a publicly traded company or any value in a privately held company. Please note that this information may differ from information posted on corporate sites due to timing or classification differences.

Mount Sinai's faculty policies relating to faculty collaboration with industry are posted on our website. Patients may wish to ask their physician about the activities they perform for companies.

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