Walker–Warburg Syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic clinical features that include muscle weakness, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, seizures, blindness (from anterior and posterior chamber eye malformations), and male genital anomalies. Brain malformations include cobblestone lissencephaly, kinking of the brain stem, flattening of the pons, and cerebellar hypoplasia. WWS has a life expectancy of less than 3 years. WWS can be caused by mutations in at least six different genes. In the Ashkenazi Jewish population, a founder mutation for this disorder has been identified in the Fukutin gene (c.1167_1168 insA). The carrier frequency for WWS in the Ashkenazi Jewish population is estimated to be 1/120. Screening for this mutation is expected to detect 95% of WWS carriers in this population. Carrier screening for WWS may be considered for individuals of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish ancestry before/during pregnancy.
1. Chung, W. et al. Founder Fukutin mutation causes Walker-Warburg syndrome in four Ashkenazi Jewish families. Prenat Diagn 29, 560-9 (2009).
2. Cotarelo, R.P. et al. Two new patients bearing mutations in the fukutin gene confirm the relevance of this gene in Walker-Warburg syndrome. Clin Genet 73, 139-45 (2008).
3. Manzini, M.C. et al. Ethnically diverse causes of Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS): FCMD mutations are a more common cause of WWS outside of the Middle East. Hum Mutat 29, E231-41 (2008).
Two 5-10 ml tubes of anticoagulated blood. The preferred anticoagulant is EDTA (lavendar top tubes), ACD (yellow top) tubes are also accepted.
Shipping: Send at room temperature.
Turnaround Time: 10-14 days
CPT Codes: 83891, 83892x2, 83898, 83912, 83914
Consent and Requisition Forms: Carrier Screening Requisition and Consent [PDF]
Additional Information: Jewish Genetic Screening Brochure [PDF]
Related Tests: Ashkenazi Jewish Carrier Test Panel
Prior to ordering prenatal testing, please contact our laboratory at 212-241-7518 to discuss.