The Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI)

The Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory [PDF] is a 13-item questionnaire adapted from the diagnostic criteria for muscle dysmorphia shown to have adequate test-retest reliability and validity in weightlifting populations. There is also evidence of the MDDI subscales to discriminate those with elevated body image pathology from normal weightlifting men. 

The MDDI is made up of three subscales:

  • Drive for Size (DFS): 1, 4, 5, 6, 8
  • Functional Impairment (FI): 2, 3, 7, 9
  • Appearance Intolerance (AI): 10, 11, 12, 13
  • Sum Score: add all MDDI items

Subscale Scores: add all questions within each subscale

  • Drive For Size (DFS): 1, 4, 5, 6, 8
  • Functional Impairment (FI): 2, 3, 7, 9
  • Appearance Intolerance (AI): 10, 11, 12, 13

The Bodybuilder Image Grid (BIG)

The Bodybuilder Image Grid [PDF] was designed to measure the perceptual body image disturbance in males and perceived attractiveness of the male body to both men and women. The figures used in the BIG vary along dimensions of muscularity and body fat.

Hildebrandt, T., Langenbaucher, J., & Schlundt, D.G. (2004).Mascularity concerns among men: Development of attitudinal and perceptual measure. [PDF] Body Image, (1), 169-181.

The Male Body Checking Questionnaire (MBCQ)

The MBCQ is a 19-item measure of male body checking behavior that utilizes the same format as the Body Checking Questionnaire [PDF] (Reas, Whisenhunt, Netemeyer, & Williamson, 2002).

Hildebrandt, T., Walker, C., Alfano, L., Delinsky, S., & Bannon, K. (2010). Development and validation of a male speciļ¬c body checking questionnaire. [PDF] International Journal of Eating Disorders, 1(43), 77-87.

Gender-Neutral BCQ (GNBCQ)

The GNBCQ [PDF] is adapted from both the BCQ and the MBCQ and is composed of the 10-items from both found to be unbiased by gender and is a suitable brief measure of body checking for mixed gender research.

Alfano, L., Hildebrandt, T., Bannon, K., Walker, C., & Walton, K.E. (2011).The impact of gender on the assessment of body checking behavior. [PDF] Body Image, (8), 20-25. 

The Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drug Use Schedule (APEDUS)

The APEDUS [PDF] is a semi-structured interview designed to capture different aspects of anabolic steroid use. The interview is adopted from the interactive online assessment.

The APEDUS includes 10 modules:

  1. Background & Demographics
  2. Training Practice & History
  3. Appearance & Body Image Control
  4. Dietary History & Practices
  5. Nutritional Supplements
  6. First APED Cycle
  7. Current/Most Recent APED Use
  8. Usual APED Use
  9. Social APED Context
  10. Risk & Future Use


Contact Us

Eleanna Varangis
Tel: 212-659-9298
Fax: 212-849-2561
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Icahn School of Medicine
Department of Psychiatry
Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drug Program
One Gustave L. Levy Place
Box 1230
New York, NY 10029