Viviana A Simon, MD, PhD
- PROFESSOR | Microbiology
- PROFESSOR | Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Dr. Simon studies emerging pathogens. She has been awarded several grants from the National Institutes of Health for her investigations of HIV and has received several honors and awards for her work.
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Multi-Disciplinary Training AreasBiophysics and Systems Pharmacology [BSP], Microbiology [MIC]
Residency, Auguste Viktoria Hospital
The Rockefeller University
The Rockefeller University
MD, Humboldt University
PhD, University of Rostock
Sinsheimer Scholar (Alexandrine and Alexander L. Sinsheimer Fund)
Specific Clinical/Research Interest:
HIV pathogenesis and host-virus interactions
Current Students: Mawuena Binka, Susan Majdak
Postdoctoral Fellows: Marcel Ooms
Research Personnel: Ariana Harari
Summary of Research Studies:
My research focuses on HIV-1 pathogenesis and viral host interactions. Complex organisms evolved both innate and adaptive immune defenses to prevent viral infection and/or dissemination. Recently,it became apparent that a group of constitutively expressed genes can efficiently restrict replication of endogenous and exogenous viruses in a species specific manner. Host cells use DNA/RNA editing enzymes as ways to curb invasion from viruses. For example, human APOBEC3G (APOlipoprotein B Editing Complex 3G) has been shown to be active against exogenous retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, Foamy), endogenous mobile genetic elements (e.g., LTR retrotransposons) and DNA viruses (e.g., Hepatitis B). One of the mode of action of cytidine deaminases is one of extensive mutagenesis. The HIV-1 gene Vif effectively counters the antiretroviral activity of APOBEC3G by inducing its degradation. The nucleotide composition of the HIV-1 genome suggests, however, that protection from host-mediated viral cDNA deamination may not be absolute. We have shown that Vif alleles that fail to degrade APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F or both can be detected in vivo. We speculate that intrinsic restriction mediated by cytidine deaminases contributes to HIV-1 sequence diversification.
Harari A, Ooms M, Mulder LC, Simon V. Polymorphisms and splice variants influence the antiretroviral activity of human APOBEC3H. J Virol 2009; 83(1): 295-303.
Mulder LF, Harari A, Simon V. Cytidine Deamination induced HIV-1 Drug resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008; 105(14): 5501-5506.
Lloyd AG, Ng YS, Muesing MA, Simon V, Mulder LC. Characterization of HIV-1 integrase N-terminal mutant viruses. Virology 2007; 360(1): 129-135.
Simon V, Ho DD, Abdool Karim Q. HIV/AIDS epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. Lancet 2006 Aug; 368(9534): 489-504.
Lloyd AG, Ng YS, Mulder LC, Simon V, Muesing MA. Characterization of HIV-1 integrase N-terminal mutant viruses. Virology 2006 November;.
Trunova N, Tsai L, Tung S, Schneider E, Harouse J, Gettie A, Simon V, Blanchard J, Cheng-Mayer C. Progestin-based contraceptive suppresses cellular immune responses in SHIV-infected rhesus macaques. Virology 2006 Aug; 352(1): 169-77.
Shet A, Berry L, Mohri H, Mehandru S, Chung C, Kim A, Jean-Pierre P, Hogan C, Simon V, Boden D, Markowitz M. Tracking the prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug-resistant HIV-1: a decade of experience. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006 Apr; 41(4): 439-46.
Simon V, Zennou V, Bieniasz P, Huang Y, Ho DD, Murray D. Natural variation in Vif: Differential impact on APOBEC3G/3F and a potential role in HIV-1 diversification. PLoS Pathogens 2005 Sept.; 1(1): 20-28.
Pfeffer S, Sewer A, Lagos-Quintana M, Sheridan R, Sander C, Grasser FA, Van Dyk LF, Ho CK, Shuman S, Chien M, Russo JJ, Ju J, Randall G, Lindenbauch BD, Rice CM, Simon V, Ho DD, Zavolan M, Tuschi T. Identification of microRNAs of the herpesvirus family. Nat Methods 2005 Apr; 2(4): 269-76.
Leigh Brown AJ, Frost SD, Good B, Daar ES, Simon V, Markowitz M, Collier AC, Connick E, Conway B, Margolick JB, Routy JP, Corbeil J, Hellmann NS, Richman DD, Little SJ. Genetic basis of hypersusceptibility to protease inhibitors and low replicative capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains in primary infection. J Virol 2004 Mar; 78(5): 2242-6.