From its humble origins in 1852 as the Jews Hospital in lower Manhattan, The Mount Sinai Hospital was already a leader in patient care by the time it moved to its present Upper East Side location on Fifth Avenue adjacent to Central Park in 1904. A unique paring of an old and venerable hospital with one of the nation's youngest medical schools, Icahn School of Medicine founded in 1963, The Mount Sinai Health System is today one of the largest and most famous in the world. Its cardiology program is one of the oldest and most distinguished in the country.

Beginning in 1909, under the leadership of Dr. Alfred E. Cohn and then Dr. Bernard S. Oppenheimer, the Electrocardiography Laboratory at The Mount Sinai Hospital was a pioneering group in the field of Cardiology in this country. In 1934 Dr. Arthur M. Master was named head of the Cardiac Laboratory and the cardiac clinics. Dr. Charles Friedberg succeeded Dr. Master in 1957 and authored one of the first standard textbooks of cardiology, securing its place in the curricula of medical schools around the nation. Dr. Arnold Katz assumed the mantle of leadership of the Division of Cardiology in 1968 and introduced a scientific approach to the study of hemodynamics.

In 1974, Dr. Richard Gorlin, an internationally renowned cardiologist, became Chairman of the Samuel Bronfman Department of Medicine, and appointed Dr Michael V. Herman as Chief of Cardiology, the first to develop a full-time cardiology faculty at the institution. In 1983, Dr. Valentin Fuster was recruited from the Mayo Clinic to serve as the Chief of Cardiology and the Dr. Arthur M. and Hilda A. Master Professor of Medicine. Dr. Fuster assembled a team of investigators and created an internationally renowned research program in thrombosis. In addition to establishing the first integrated experimental laboratories for cardiovascular research at Mount Sinai, Dr. Fuster reorganized the clinical practices of the division and made the cardiology fellowship training program among the most sought-after in the nation.

In 1990, the Molecular and Cellular Cardiology Laboratories were established, dedicated to investigating cardiovascular diseases through the techniques of molecular and cellular biology. Dr. Fuster returned to Mount Sinai in 1994 as Director of the newly created Cardiovascular Institute. In 1996 the Robert and Harriet Heilbrunn Professorship was endowed and established for the Institute's Director of Clinical Cardiology Services, and Dr. Jonathan L. Halperin was installed as its first occupant. In 1997, Dr. Fuster was named the Richard Gorlin, M.D. / Heart Research Foundation Professor of Cardiology, a newly endowed chair designated for the Director of the Institute. On November 4, 1997, the Cardiovascular Institute itself was endowed by and named for Zena and Michael A. Wiener, establishing a firm base for its future development.